(U) The Ground-Based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) site at Diego Garcia is one of three operational sites performing ground-based optical tracking of space objects. The Socorro (New Mexico, USA), Choe Jong San (South Korea) and Maui (Hawaii, USA) sites were operational by 1983. A fourth site, Diego Garcia (Indian Ocean), was completed in 1987, and a fifth site was planned but later cancelled for Portugal. The South Korean site was closed in 1993 due to weather and cost concerns.
(U) The Ground-Based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) site at Diego Garcia is one of three sites performing ground-based optical tracking of space objects. To perform its mission, GEODSS brings together the telescope, low-light level television cameras, and computers -- three proven technologies. The Diego Garcia site has three Cassegrain telescopes (no Schmidts are present). The main telescope (a Cassegrains) has a 102 cm aperture and a two-degree field of view and is used primarily to search the deep sky for faint (+16 magnitude), slow-moving objects. The auxiliary telescope (a Schmidt) has a 38 cm aperture and six-degree field of view, and does wide area searches of lower altitudes where objects travel at higher relative speeds. The telescopes are able to "see" objects 10,000 times dimmer than the human eye can detect.
(U) The telescopes scan the sky at the same rate as the stars appear to move. This keeps the distant stars in the same positions in the field of view. As the telescopes slowly move, the GEODSS cameras take very rapid electronic snapshots of the field of view. Four computers then take these snapshots and overlay them on each other. Star images, which remain fixed, are electronically erased. Man-made space objects, however, do not remain fixed and their movements show up as tiny streaks which can be viewed on a console screen. Computers measure these streaks and use the data to figure the positions of objects such as satellites in orbits from 5,500-37,000 km. This information is used to update the list of orbiting objects and sent nearly instantaneously from the sites to Cheyenne Mountain AFB. Since GEODSS is an optical system, the system only operates at night, and cloud cover and local weather conditions influence its effectiveness.
(U) Any sustained loss of a GEODSS sensor would have dramatic impact on the deep space surveillance mission and maintenance of the space catalogue.
|Diego Garcia||Diego Garcia|
|CSOC||Consolidated Space Operations Centers (CSOC)|
|Diego Garcia GEODSS Upgrades||Ground-Based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) Upgrades at Diego Garcia|
|GEODSS||Ground-Based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance System (GEODSS)|
|Maui||Ground-Based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) at Maui|
|Maui GEODSS Upgrades||Ground-Based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) Upgrades at Maui|
|NCMC-TW/AA||NORAD Cheyenne Mountain Complex (NCMC) Threat Warning/Attack Assessment|
|Optical C3 Facility||Optical C3 Facility|
|Socorro||Ground-Based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) at Socorro|
|Socorro GEODSS Upgrades||Ground-Based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) Upgrades at Socorro|
|Dedicated Sensors||Dedicated Sensors|
|National Security Space Road Map||Integrated System Road Map|
|SPACE CONTROL: S.S. NETWORK||SPACE CONTROL: SPACE SURVEILLANCE NETWORK|
(U) National Security Space Road Map Team, NSSA, Open Phone: (703) 808-6040, DSN 898-6040.
(U) 27 August 1998
(U) Road Map Production Date: 23 June 2001